In a pioneering five-year initiative, the Oklahoma Pre-K program has made substantial strides in ensuring access to prekindergarten education for every 4-year-old in the state. Researchers at Georgetown University conducted a recent evaluation, focusing on Tulsa’s public school system, revealing the positive impact of this Pre-K program on children’s educational outcomes.
The study, titled “The Effects of Universal Pre-K in Oklahoma: Research Highlights and Policy Implications,” highlights the transformative effects of the Pre-K program. On average, participating children exhibited a remarkable 16 percent increase in their test scores, with the most substantial gains observed in cognitive and language skills. Interestingly, the study also shed light on disparities across ethnic and economic lines.
Hispanic children emerged as the greatest beneficiaries, experiencing an impressive 54 percent increase in overall scores. African-American children also showed notable progress, with a 17 percent uptick. Conversely, the Pre-K program did not demonstrate significant improvements for white children. Economic status further played a role, with language scores soaring nearly 35 percent for children eligible for reduced-price lunches and cognitive skills increasing by 31 percent for those qualifying for free lunches.
The findings prompt consideration of the Pre-K program’s approach, suggesting that targeting services to minority and disadvantaged children may be a more effective strategy than universal access. However, the study’s authors, William T. Gormley and Deborah Phillips of Georgetown University, propose an alternative perspective. They posit that the Pre-K program’s success may be attributed to the diversity within classrooms, where the presence of both advantaged and disadvantaged children contributes to positive outcomes.
Unlike Pre-K initiatives in other states, Oklahoma’s model stands out in its emphasis on teacher training. State law mandates that every Pre-K teacher holds a bachelor’s degree and a certificate in early-childhood education, erasing traditional boundaries between preschool and K-12 teachers. Gormley underscores the significance, stating, “It asserts that what really matters in early childhood is the quality of the teacher and the education of the teacher.”
This commitment to teacher qualifications aligns with broader research suggesting that requiring Pre-K teachers to have bachelor’s degrees is a crucial step in building effective early childhood education programs. Marcy Whitebook of the University of California, Berkeley, emphasizes this point, stating that demanding higher education for teachers is vital for preparing children adequately for kindergarten.
In terms of program logistics, Oklahoma’s Pre-K program classrooms differ from those in other states. Instead of utilizing both schools and community-based child-care centers, all Pre-K program classes in Oklahoma are housed within public schools. The focus is not on specific curriculum goals but on comprehensive teacher training as the pathway to high-quality pupil readiness for school.
This study on Tulsa’s Pre-K program effort deviates from conventional research methods by addressing the issue of selection bias. By administering the Early Childhood Skills Inventory to both Pre-K program entrants and 5-year-olds who had completed the program, this innovative approach ensures that all children’s parents had willingly chosen the Pre-K program.
While not as nationally acclaimed as some other state initiatives, Oklahoma’s universal Pre-K program stands as a testament to the impact of inclusive early childhood education. By prioritizing teacher quality and embracing diversity, the state is shaping a more equitable and promising educational landscape for its youngest learners.